Why did the US Army Call The Vietnamese "Charlie" During The War?

Why did the U.S. Army Call The Vietnamese “Charlie” During The War?

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I have lived in Vietnam long and wondered why the U.S. Army called the Vietnamese soldiers “Charlie” during the war. The term Charlie was used a lot by the U.S. Army to refer to the Vietnamese soldiers.

The U.S. Army called the Viet Cong or Vietnamese soldiers “Charlie” for the letter “C” in the NATO alphabet. The U.S. Army and others shortened the NATO alphabet names to spell out the name Viet Cong, also called V.C.; in the NATO alphabet – the V is Victor, and C is Charlie. Instead of spelling out the Viet Cong name, they shortened the Nato letter C or “Charlie.” This name was for the Viet Cong and North Vietnamese forces throughout the Vietnam War.

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The US Army And the Name Charlie During The Vietnam War

The US Army used the nickname Charlie to refer to the  Việt Cộng and North Vietnamese Army. The term Việt Cộng first appeared in a Saigon newspaper in 1956.

The name Việt Cộng was a shortened form of Việt Nam cộng sản, which translates meant Vietnamese Communists. . The earliest citation of the word Việt Cộng was found in English in 1957.

During the Vietnam War, the American soldiers would refer to the North Vietnamese soldiers using the NATO Phonetic alphabet. V was referred to as Victor in the Nato phonetic alphabet and C as Charlie. The soldier then shortened the “Victor Charlie” for the Viet Cong to say the word “Charlie” to refer to the Vietnamese soldiers.

That is how the Viet Cong soldiers became known as Charlie by the U.S. Army during the Vietnam War. It was a name the North Vietnamese soldiers and Viet Cong guerilla fighters were known by throughout the war.

Viet Cong Vs. Viet Minh – What is the difference?

The Vietnamese struggle for independence from French colonial rule resulted in one of modern history’s most complex and heavily studied civil wars. In doing so, it’s created a plethora of acronyms and groups that can easily confuse those unfamiliar.

The two principal protagonists in the Vietnam War conflict were the Viet Cong and the Viet Minh, both organizations seeking freedom from foreign control that played crucial roles during Vietnam’s tumultuous years between the 1950s and 1970s. Even though the Viet Cong and Viet Minh were both fighting for Vietnam’s independence, they had some differences.

The Vietnam War – The Viet Minh

The name Viet Minh is short for Viet Nam Doc Lap Dong Minh Hoi, which means “League for the Independence of Vietnam.’ The Viet Minh was set up in 1941 to fight for Vietnamese independence from French rule.

During World War II, the Japanese occupied Vietnam. So, besides fighting the colonial French, the Viet Minh also started military campaigns against the Japanese. By the end of 1944, the Viet Minh claimed to have a membership of at least 500,000 Viet Minh fighters.

The Viet Minh was led primarily by the communists; the Viet Minh was also a national front open to people from all kinds of political backgrounds or persuasions. Their main goal was to liberate Vietnam from French rule. The prominent leader of the Viet Minh was Ho Chi Minh.

When North Vietnam won the war of independence against the French in 1956, most Viet Minh became part of the Vietnamese Communists party. Many former Viet Minh leaders and fighters were active in North Vietnam’s politics and military.

The Vietnam War – The Viet Cong

In the mid-1950s, various South Vietnamese groups opposing President Diem’s South Vietnamese government began forming. The name group was the Viet Cong.

The full name of the Viet Cong was Việt Nam Cộng-sản, which translates to “Vietnamese Communist. The Viet Cong group of fighters formed in the late 1950s but took hold in the 1960s.

The Viet Cong was a guerrilla force that, with the North Vietnamese Army’s support, was fighting against the leadership of South Vietnam (from the late 1950s to 1975) and then later the United States (from the early 1960s to 1975).

The Southern Vietnamese President Ngo Dinh Diem used the name Viet Cong to belittle and discredit the rebels. In South Vietnam, the Viet Cong were referred to as  Việt Gian cộng sản, which means “Communist Traitor to Vietnam.’

Of course, this insulted the Viet Cong as they saw themselves as patriots, liberating Vietnam from all foreign power and influence. Many people in South Vietnam felt that the Viet Cong were unpatriotic and traitors to South Vietnam.

Most of the Viet Cong were recruited in the South, but they received weapons, guidance, reinforcement, and support from the North Vietnamese Army. Many North Vietnamese soldiers also infiltrated South Vietnam and became part of the Viet Cong fighters.

In 1968, during the famous TET Offensive, the Viet Cong suffered tremendous losses; so deep were their losses that North Vietnamese soldiers had to fill many of the Viet Cong’s ranks. This shows the total support that the North Vietnamese army had for the Viet Cong.

The Viet Cong was a guerilla force whose war methods were ambush, terrorism, and sabotage. They used small units first to get a foothold in the countryside.

What is the NATO Alaphet Used For Charlie During The Vietnam War?

The NATO alphabet is also known as the International Radiotelephony Spelling Alphabet. There are 26 codewords assigned to each letter of the alphabet. This helped ensure that letters or words that may be similar would be clear when spelled out with references to the letter used.

Below is a chart to show what words were used for which letter.

Alphabet LetterTelephony WordAlphabet LetterTelephony Word

For example, if someone were on the radio and wanted to make sure someone on the other end heard the name Viet Cong correctly, they would spell it out like this.

  • V – Victor
  • I – India
  • E – Echo
  • T- Tango
  • C – Charlie
  • O- Oscar
  • N – November
  • G – Golf.

When you see how long it would take to spell even the name Viet Cong, you can see why the U.S. Army and others shortened the Viet Cong name to “Charlie.” Not having to spell out the entire name saved the U.S. Army and others a lot of time during their radio transmissions.

Now, when you can see how long it took the U.S. Army to spell out Vietnam’s name with the NATO Alphabet, you can understand why they shortened it to say, Charlie. The meaning was clear to everyone, saving them time during the radio transmission.

15 Intriguing Facts About the Vietnam War

The Vietnam War, a contentious conflict that spanned over two decades, deeply affected Vietnam, the United States, and the global stage. As one delves into this chapter of 20th-century history, it’s crucial to recognize some lesser-known and often overlooked facts.

Here are fifteen facts about the Vietnam War that offer a broader perspective:

  1. Origins in Colonialism: The roots of the Vietnam War trace back to Vietnam’s colonization by France in the late 19th century. The subsequent Vietnamese resistance against French rule laid the groundwork for the later conflict.
  2. Divided Nation: After World War II, the 1954 Geneva Accords temporarily divided Vietnam at the 17th parallel: North Vietnam under communist rule and South Vietnam under anti-communist leadership.
  3. US Involvement: Initially, the U.S. provided South Vietnam with financial and military support. By the mid-1960s, however, American troops were directly involved in combat.
  4. Agent Orange: The U.S. military used a herbicide called Agent Orange to clear dense forest regions, which has since been linked to severe health issues and birth defects in both Vietnamese civilians and U.S. veterans.
  5. Ho Chi Minh Trail: North Vietnam established an intricate network of paths and trails, known as the Ho Chi Minh Trail, to supply the Viet Cong fighters in the South. This route ran through Laos and Cambodia, making it a significant factor in the war’s expansion.
  6. Tet Offensive: In 1968, the Viet Cong and North Vietnamese forces launched a major surprise attack, known as the Tet Offensive. Though it was militarily costly for the North, it turned American public opinion against the war.
  7. Pulitzer Prize Photograph: One of the war’s iconic images, captured by photographer Nick Ut, showed a young girl named Phan Thi Kim Phuc running naked from a napalm strike. This heart-wrenching image became a symbol of the war’s devastating civilian impact.
  8. Role of the Media: The Vietnam War is often termed the “first televised war.” Media coverage, particularly from American TV networks, played a crucial role in shaping public perceptions and opinions.
  9. My Lai Massacre: One of the war’s darkest chapters was the My Lai Massacre in 1968, where American troops killed hundreds of Vietnamese civilians, further galvanizing anti-war sentiments.
  10. Paris Peace Accords: The 1973 Paris Peace Accords intended to bring about a ceasefire and U.S. troop withdrawal. However, fighting between North and South Vietnam continued.
  11. End of the War: The war officially ended on April 30, 1975, when North Vietnamese forces captured Saigon, renaming it Ho Chi Minh City.
  12. Vietnamese Boat People: After the war, many South Vietnamese fled the country due to political persecution and economic hardships, leading to a significant refugee crisis known as the “Boat People” phenomenon.
  13. War Memorials: The Vietnam Veterans Memorial in Washington, D.C., is a stark reminder of the conflict’s human cost, inscribed with the names of over 58,000 U.S. service members who died in or as a result of the war.
  14. Civilian Casualties: It’s estimated that up to 2 million civilians died on both sides due to the war.
  15. Global Protests: The Vietnam War sparked significant anti-war protests worldwide, especially in the U.S., impacting politics, culture, and the broader anti-establishment movement of the 1960s and 70s.

While these facts provide an overview, the Vietnam War’s complexities and nuances continue to be subjects of study, reflection, and discussion. Intertwined with tales of heroism, tragedy, and resilience, the war’s legacy remains a poignant chapter in global history.

Listen To Our Podcast About Charlie Unveiled: Decoding The U.S. Army’s Name For Vietnamese Soldiers Below or By clicking here.

Charlie Unveiled: Decoding The U.S. Army's Name For Vietnamese Soldiers

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