Who Built the Long Bien Bridge in Hanoi, Vietnam?

Long Bien Bridge Designed by Gustave Eiffel

The Long Bien bridge is an iconic bridge that is located in Hanoi, Vietnam. The bridge is now one of many bridges the cross the Red River from the Long Bien area into Hanoi, Vietnam.

The Bridge the Eiffel Built - Long ...
The Bridge the Eiffel Built - Long Bien Bridge Vietnam.

The Long Bien Bridge in Hanoi, Vietnam, is an iconic bridge that was designed by the great French architect Gustave Eiffel. The bridge has a long history and is an important part of the French rule in Vietnam. It was a target of bombings by the American forces during the Vietnam War. Today you can ride a motorcycle, bicycle, or walk across the Long Bien bridge.

When you visit Hanoi, Vietnam, the bridge you are certain to see is the Long Bien bridge connecting the downtown part of Hanoi with the district on the other side of the river known as Long Bien. The Long Bien bridge has an exciting design and history.

Ride with me as I show you some screen from the Long Bien Bridge in Hanoi. I will frequently ride the bridge on my bicycle.

The Bridge the Eiffel Built - Long Bien Bridge Vietnam.

The Architect – Gustave Eiffel

Gustave Eiffel was a French engineer and architect. He was born in France in 1832 and was a graduate of the prestigious school of Ecole Centrale des Arts et Manufactures

His most famous work is the Eiffel Tower in Paris, France. The Eiffel Tower was built for the Universal Exposition that took place in Paris in 1889.

Eiffel also made contributions to the iconic Statue of Liberty in New York City. But more than that, his work influenced many buildings—structures, monuments, bridges, and viaducts worldwide.

Gustave Eiffel is known to the be architect and designer of this iconic Long Bridge. He designed and created quite a few bridges in Vietnam and throughout Asia.

Besides designing the Long Bien bridge, Gustave Eiffel also designed other bridges in Vietnam. Some examples are the Ghenh- Bridget and Rach Cat Bridge in Bein Hoa City, Dong Nai Province, and the Truong Tien Bridge in Hue, Vietnam.

View from the Long Bien in Hanoi,. Vietnam
View from the Long Bien in Hanoi,. Vietnam. Bridge designed by Gustave Eiffel.

The History of the Long Bien Bridge

Gustave Eiffel designed the bridge for the architects Dayde and Pille of Paris. There is still a sign on the old part of the bridge that lists their name.

The bridge was constructed from 1899 to 1902 and completed in 1903. It was built to connect the downtown Hoan Kiem area of Hanoi with Long Bien over the Red River.

During the time of the French rule of Vietnam, it was called the Paul- Doumer Bridge. This is because it was named after Paul Doumer, the then Governor-General of French Indochina.

About Paul Doumer – Governor General of Indochine

Paul Doumer was born of modest means as Joseph Athanase Doumer. His background was in mathematics.

He ruled French Indochina from 1897 to 1902. During this time, the French colonies were losing millions of francs each year. He was determined to turn this around, so he levied a burdensome tax on opium, wine, and the salt trade.

The Vietnamese, Cambodians, and Laotians who would or could not pay these heavy taxes would lose their house and land. This forced many of them to become day laborers.

He established French Indochina as a market for French products and French Businessmen. Not caring very much what kind of hardship this would cause to the Vietnamese, Cambodian, or Laotian populations.

His goal was to outfit Indochina, especially the capital Hanoi, with modern infrastructure as France would have had. Under his rule, several large-scale projects took place, including the building of the Long Bien bridge. This is why the Long Bien Bridge was first called the Paul Doumer Bridge.

Doumer returned to France in 1901 and held various top government positions. His last position was in 1931, when he was elected as President of the French Republic. He was assassinated in 1932 while attending the opening of a Book Fair in Paris, France.

About the Long Bien Bridge

The Long Bien bridge is 2.5 kilometers or 1.5 miles in length. At the time it was built, it was the longest bridge in Asia. More than 3,000 Vietnamese helped take part in the construction of the bridge.

There are two roadways on the bridge that would allow cars to cross by a single file. In the center are train tracks that allow the trains from Haiphong and other areas to come into Hanoi’s central train station.

For the French colonial government, the bridge was of strategic importance. It allowed them access to the seaport of Haiphong and to secure control of North Vietnam.

In 1954 when the French left Vietnam, Paul Doumer’s name was taken off the bridge, and the bridge was renamed the Long Bien Bridge. For many years it was the only bridge that connected Hanoi to the main port of Haiphong, Vietnam.

View from the Long Bien Bridge in Hanoi,. Vietnam. Bridge designed by Gustave Eiffel
View from the top of the Long Bien Bridge in Hanoi,. Vietnam. Bridge designed by Gustave Eiffel

The Long Bien Bridge and the Vietnam War

The Long Bien bridge was heavily bombarded during the Vietnam war. That is why even today, you can only see some sections of the old French bridge built by Gustave Eiffel; the American forces bombed many sections of the bridge.

During the war, this bridge was of extreme strategic importance as it was the only bridge that connected Hanoi’s capital to the main seaport of Haiphong. Of course, this would have been essential to allow goods and people to come into the capital city of Hanoi, Vietnam.

The first attack on the bridge came in 1967. The center span of the bridge was attacked by 20 United States Air Force F-106 fighter bombers. The center section of the bridge fell.

This bridge was so well built that CIA reports of the bombing said that the bridge did not appear to sustain as much damage as they hoped it would work even with this intense bombing.

Throughout the war, this bridge was always a target of the American bombings. They hoped to cut off the supply lines of Hanoi from the port city of Haiphong. We had heard older Hanoians tell us the Americans stopped bombing the bridge when the Vietnamese placed some U.S. Servicemen on the crew to repair the bridge’s damage by the American bombs.

Whether that was ever the case or not, the Long Bien bridge was a huge iconic symbol for the Vietnamese during the war with America. There is a lot of wartime poetry and songs about the Long Bien bridge.

Despite the heavy beating the bridge received during the war, it was only really unusable in 1972 when it fell victim to the first co-ordinated attack using the new laser-guided smart bombs.

Many American service members who were sent to bomb the Hanoi capital were captured and placed in the famous Vietnamese Hoa Lo Prison in Hanoi. The American servicemen were released from the Hoa Lo Prison in 1972; they boarded white and green camouflaged army buses. The American service members were driven over the Long Bien Bridge to the Gia Lam Airport to return home to the United States.

View from the Long Bien Bridge in Hanoi,. Vietnam. Bridge designed by Gustave Eiffel.
View from the Long Bien Bridge in Hanoi,. Vietnam. Bridge designed by Gustave Eiffel.

The Long Bien Bridge Today

Today the Long Bien Bridge that Gustave Eiffel designed is one of many bridges that links the Hoan Kiem district of Hanoi with Long Bien. Cars are not allowed to travel on the bridge, but only motorcycles and bicycles.

Many people will also walk the bridge to take photographs of the Red River and the surrounding areas. Some trains are traveling down the center of the bridge several times a day to Hanoi’s train station.

Some parts of the Gustave Eiffel’s original structure and design remain intact. Other parts clearly show where the bridge sustained intense bombing, so large gaps of the bridge were filled in and repaired.

There is some talk that the French and Vietnamese Governments are talking about a joint project to restore the Long Bien Bridge to its former appearance. I am sure that Gustave Eiffel would have been pleased to see the bridge return to its former glory.

When you visit Hanoi, Vietnam, a must-see attraction is the Long Bien Bridge. The bridge is not only steeped in history, but world-class architect and designer Gustave Eiffel also designed it.

Is It Safe To Go Out In the Early Mornings In Hanoi, Vietnam?

It is usually safe to go out in the early mornings in Hanoi, Vietnam. The streets of the city are always bustling and alive with a lot of activity and excitement. People in the city tend to start their days very early—one of the best things to see in the early morning exercisers. To see the early morning exercise, you must also get up very early. There are many places in Hanoi where you can see a lot of the early morning exercisers.

To find out more about the early mornings in Hanoi and tot see a video about the early morning exercise, you can read our blog Early Morning Exercise in Hanoi, Vietnam, What You Need to Know by clicking here.

What Should I Do If I Need Emergency Medical Care In Vietnam?

If you get an illness or injury while traveling in North Vietnam, there are Government (Public) Hospitals, but you may find that the hospital conditions are not up to the western standards of medical care. It would help if you instead considered getting to Hanoi to have a doctor at one of the Expat Medical clinics or hospitals check you out. If the Hanoi clinics or hospitals cannot help you with your medical needs, you may need to go to another Southeast Asian country or go home to get adequate medical care you require.

You can find out about getting adequate medical in Hanoi and North Vietnam by reading our blog Guide to Emergency Medical Care in North Vietnam by clicking here.

Anita L Hummel

Hi, I live in Hanoi, Vietnam but spend time traveling the region. I love to share with you things I see and learn through my travels.

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